Использование async/await для нескольких задач

я использую клиент API, который полностью asynchrounous, то есть каждая операция либо возвращает Task или Task<T>, электронной.г:

static async Task DoSomething(int siteId, int postId, IBlogClient client)
{
    await client.DeletePost(siteId, postId); // call API client
    Console.WriteLine("Deleted post {0}.", siteId);
}

используя операторы async/await c# 5, каков правильный / наиболее эффективный способ запуска нескольких задач и ожидания их завершения:

int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
Parallel.ForEach(ids, i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient).Wait());

или:

int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
Task.WaitAll(ids.Select(i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient)).ToArray());

поскольку клиент API использует HttpClient внутренне, я ожидал бы, что это немедленно выдаст 5 HTTP-запросов, записывая в консоль как каждый один завершения.

5 ответов


int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
Parallel.ForEach(ids, i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient).Wait());

хотя вы выполняете операции параллельно с указанным выше кодом, этот код блокирует каждый поток, в котором выполняется каждая операция. Например, если сеть занимает 2 секунды, каждый поток зависает в течение 2 секунд без ничего, кроме ожидания.

int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
Task.WaitAll(ids.Select(i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient)).ToArray());

С другой стороны, приведенный выше код с WaitAll также блокирует потоки, и ваши потоки не будут свободны для обработки любой другой работы до окончания операции.

Рекомендуемый Подход

I предпочел бы WhenAll, который будет выполнять операции асинхронно и параллельно.

public async Task DoWork() {

    int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
    await Task.WhenAll(ids.Select(i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient)));
}

на самом деле, в вышеуказанном случае вам даже не нужно await, вы можете просто напрямую вернуться из метода, поскольку у вас нет никаких продолжений:

public Task DoWork() 
{
    int[] ids = new[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
    return Task.WhenAll(ids.Select(i => DoSomething(1, i, blogClient)));
}

чтобы поддержать это, вот подробный пост в блоге, проходящий через все альтернативы и их преимущества / недостатки: как и где одновременный асинхронный ввод-вывод с ASP.NET полотно В API


мне было любопытно увидеть результаты методов, представленных в вопросе, а также принятый ответ, поэтому я поставил его на тест.

вот код:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace AsyncTest
{
    class Program
    {
        class Worker
        {
            public int Id;
            public int SleepTimeout;

            public async Task DoWork(DateTime testStart)
            {
                var workerStart = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} started on thread {1}, beginning {2} seconds after test start.",
                    Id, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, (workerStart-testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
                await Task.Run(() => Thread.Sleep(SleepTimeout));
                var workerEnd = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} stopped; the worker took {1} seconds, and it finished {2} seconds after the test start.",
                   Id, (workerEnd-workerStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"), (workerEnd-testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
            }
        }

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var workers = new List<Worker>
            {
                new Worker { Id = 1, SleepTimeout = 1000 },
                new Worker { Id = 2, SleepTimeout = 2000 },
                new Worker { Id = 3, SleepTimeout = 3000 },
                new Worker { Id = 4, SleepTimeout = 4000 },
                new Worker { Id = 5, SleepTimeout = 5000 },
            };

            var startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Parallel.ForEach...");
            PerformTest_ParallelForEach(workers, startTime);
            var endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Task.WaitAll...");
            PerformTest_TaskWaitAll(workers, startTime);
            endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Task.WhenAll...");
            var task = PerformTest_TaskWhenAll(workers, startTime);
            task.Wait();
            endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            Console.ReadKey();
        }

        static void PerformTest_ParallelForEach(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            Parallel.ForEach(workers, worker => worker.DoWork(testStart).Wait());
        }

        static void PerformTest_TaskWaitAll(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            Task.WaitAll(workers.Select(worker => worker.DoWork(testStart)).ToArray());
        }

        static Task PerformTest_TaskWhenAll(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            return Task.WhenAll(workers.Select(worker => worker.DoWork(testStart)));
        }
    }
}

и полученный результат:

Starting test: Parallel.ForEach...
Worker 1 started on thread 1, beginning 0.21 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 5, beginning 0.21 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 3, beginning 0.21 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 6, beginning 0.21 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 4, beginning 0.21 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.90 seconds, and it finished 2.11 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 3.89 seconds, and it finished 4.10 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 5.89 seconds, and it finished 6.10 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 5.90 seconds, and it finished 6.11 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 8.89 seconds, and it finished 9.10 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 9.10 seconds.

Starting test: Task.WaitAll...
Worker 1 started on thread 1, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 1, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 1, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 1, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 1, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.00 seconds, and it finished 1.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 2.00 seconds, and it finished 2.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 3.00 seconds, and it finished 3.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 4.00 seconds, and it finished 4.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 5.00 seconds, and it finished 5.01 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 5.01 seconds.

Starting test: Task.WhenAll...
Worker 1 started on thread 1, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 1, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 1, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 1, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 1, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.00 seconds, and it finished 1.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 2.00 seconds, and it finished 2.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 3.00 seconds, and it finished 3.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 4.00 seconds, and it finished 4.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 5.00 seconds, and it finished 5.00 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 5.00 seconds.

С помощью API вы звоните асинхронный, то Parallel.ForEach версия не имеет особого смысла. Вы не должны использовать .Wait на WaitAll версия, так как это потеряет параллелизм другой альтернативы, если вызывающий абонент async использует Task.WhenAll после этого Select и ToArray для создания массива задач. Второй альтернативой является использование Rx 2.0


Parallel.ForEach на пользовательские рабочих и non-async Action выполнить с каждым работником.

Task.WaitAll и Task.WhenAll требуют List<Task>, которые по определению асинхронный.

нашел RiaanDP ' s ответ очень полезно, чтобы понять разницу, но она нуждается в коррекции для Parallel.ForEach. Недостаточно репутации, чтобы ответить на его комментарий, таким образом, мой собственный ответ.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace AsyncTest
{
    class Program
    {
        class Worker
        {
            public int Id;
            public int SleepTimeout;

            public void DoWork(DateTime testStart)
            {
                var workerStart = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} started on thread {1}, beginning {2} seconds after test start.",
                    Id, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, (workerStart - testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
                Thread.Sleep(SleepTimeout);
                var workerEnd = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} stopped; the worker took {1} seconds, and it finished {2} seconds after the test start.",
                   Id, (workerEnd - workerStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"), (workerEnd - testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
            }

            public async Task DoWorkAsync(DateTime testStart)
            {
                var workerStart = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} started on thread {1}, beginning {2} seconds after test start.",
                    Id, Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, (workerStart - testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
                await Task.Run(() => Thread.Sleep(SleepTimeout));
                var workerEnd = DateTime.Now;
                Console.WriteLine("Worker {0} stopped; the worker took {1} seconds, and it finished {2} seconds after the test start.",
                   Id, (workerEnd - workerStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"), (workerEnd - testStart).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));
            }
        }

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            var workers = new List<Worker>
            {
                new Worker { Id = 1, SleepTimeout = 1000 },
                new Worker { Id = 2, SleepTimeout = 2000 },
                new Worker { Id = 3, SleepTimeout = 3000 },
                new Worker { Id = 4, SleepTimeout = 4000 },
                new Worker { Id = 5, SleepTimeout = 5000 },
            };

            var startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Parallel.ForEach...");
            PerformTest_ParallelForEach(workers, startTime);
            var endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Task.WaitAll...");
            PerformTest_TaskWaitAll(workers, startTime);
            endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            startTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Starting test: Task.WhenAll...");
            var task = PerformTest_TaskWhenAll(workers, startTime);
            task.Wait();
            endTime = DateTime.Now;
            Console.WriteLine("Test finished after {0} seconds.\n",
                (endTime - startTime).TotalSeconds.ToString("F2"));

            Console.ReadKey();
        }

        static void PerformTest_ParallelForEach(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            Parallel.ForEach(workers, worker => worker.DoWork(testStart));
        }

        static void PerformTest_TaskWaitAll(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            Task.WaitAll(workers.Select(worker => worker.DoWorkAsync(testStart)).ToArray());
        }

        static Task PerformTest_TaskWhenAll(List<Worker> workers, DateTime testStart)
        {
            return Task.WhenAll(workers.Select(worker => worker.DoWorkAsync(testStart)));
        }
    }
}

результат ниже. Время выполнения сопоставимо. Я запустил этот тест, пока мой компьютер делал еженедельное антивирусное сканирование. Изменение порядка выполнения тестов изменило время их выполнения.

Starting test: Parallel.ForEach...
Worker 1 started on thread 9, beginning 0.02 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 10, beginning 0.02 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 11, beginning 0.02 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 13, beginning 0.03 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 14, beginning 0.03 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.00 seconds, and it finished 1.02 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 2.00 seconds, and it finished 2.02 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 3.00 seconds, and it finished 3.03 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 4.00 seconds, and it finished 4.03 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 5.00 seconds, and it finished 5.03 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 5.03 seconds.

Starting test: Task.WaitAll...
Worker 1 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 9, beginning 0.01 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.00 seconds, and it finished 1.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 2.00 seconds, and it finished 2.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 3.00 seconds, and it finished 3.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 4.00 seconds, and it finished 4.01 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 5.00 seconds, and it finished 5.01 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 5.01 seconds.

Starting test: Task.WhenAll...
Worker 1 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 2 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 3 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 4 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 5 started on thread 9, beginning 0.00 seconds after test start.
Worker 1 stopped; the worker took 1.00 seconds, and it finished 1.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 2 stopped; the worker took 2.00 seconds, and it finished 2.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 3 stopped; the worker took 3.00 seconds, and it finished 3.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 4 stopped; the worker took 4.00 seconds, and it finished 4.00 seconds after the test start.
Worker 5 stopped; the worker took 5.00 seconds, and it finished 5.01 seconds after the test start.
Test finished after 5.01 seconds.

можно использовать Task.WhenAll функция, которую вы можете передать n задачи; Task.WhenAll возвращает задачу, которая выполняется до завершения, когда все задачи, которые вы передали Task.WhenAll завершить. Вы должны ждать асинхронно на Task.WhenAll чтобы вы не блокировали поток пользовательского интерфейса:

   public async Task DoSomeThing() {

       var Task[] tasks = new Task[numTasks];
       for(int i = 0; i < numTask; i++)
       {
          tasks[i] = CallSomeAsync();
       }
       await Task.WhenAll(tasks);
       // code that'll execute on UI thread
   }